COPY INTO

Applies to: check marked yes Databricks SQL check marked yes Databricks Runtime

Loads data from a file location into a Delta table. This is a retriable and idempotent operation—files in the source location that have already been loaded are skipped. For examples, see Common data loading patterns using COPY INTO.

Syntax

COPY INTO target_table
  FROM { source_clause |
         ( SELECT expression_list FROM source_clause ) }
  FILEFORMAT = data_source
  [ VALIDATE [ ALL | num_rows ROWS ] ]
  [ FILES = ( file_name [, ...] ) | PATTERN = glob_pattern ]
  [ FORMAT_OPTIONS ( { data_source_reader_option = value } [, ...] ) ]
  [ COPY_OPTIONS ( { copy_option = value } [, ...] ) ]

source_clause
  source [ WITH ( [ CREDENTIAL { credential_name |
                                 (temporary_credential_options) } ]
                  [ ENCRYPTION (encryption_options) ] ) ]

Parameters

  • target_table

    Identifies an existing Delta table. The target_table must not include a temporal specification.

  • source

    The file location to load the data from. Files in this location must have the format specified in FILEFORMAT. The location is provided in the form of a URI.

    Access to the source location can be provided through:

    • credential_name

      Optional name of the credential used to access or write to the storage location. You use this credential only if the file location is not included in an external location. See credential_name.

    • Inline temporary credentials.

    Note

    If the source file path is a root path, please add a slash (/) at the end of the file path, for example, s3://my-bucket/.

    Accepted credential options are:

    • AWS_ACCESS_KEY, AWS_SECRET_KEY, and AWS_SESSION_TOKEN for AWS S3

    • AZURE_SAS_TOKEN for ADLS Gen2 and Azure Blob Storage

    Accepted encryption options are:

    • TYPE = 'AWS_SSE_C', and MASTER_KEY for AWS S3

  • SELECT expression_list

    Selects the specified columns or expressions from the source data before copying into the Delta table. The expressions can be anything you use with SELECT statements, including window operations. You can use aggregation expressions only for global aggregates–you cannot GROUP BY on columns with this syntax.

  • FILEFORMAT = data_source

    The format of the source files to load. One of CSV, JSON, AVRO, ORC, PARQUET, TEXT, BINARYFILE.

  • VALIDATE

    Applies to: check marked yes Databricks SQL check marked yes Databricks Runtime 10.3 and above

    The data that is to be loaded into a table is validated but not written to the table. These validations include:

    • Whether the data can be parsed.

    • Whether the schema matches that of the table or if the schema needs to be evolved.

    • Whether all nullability and check constraints are met.

    The default is to validate all of the data that is to be loaded. You can provide a number of rows to be validated with the ROWS keyword, such as VALIDATE 15 ROWS. The COPY INTO statement returns a preview of the data of 50 rows or less when a number of less than 50 is used with the ROWS keyword).

  • FILES

    A list of file names to load, with a limit of 1000 files. Cannot be specified with PATTERN.

  • PATTERN

    A glob pattern that identifies the files to load from the source directory. Cannot be specified with FILES.

    Pattern

    Description

    ?

    Matches any single character

    *

    Matches zero or more characters

    [abc]

    Matches a single character from character set {a,b,c}.

    [a-z]

    Matches a single character from the character range {a…z}.

    [^a]

    Matches a single character that is not from character set or range {a}. Note that the ^ character must occur immediately to the right of the opening bracket.

    {ab,cd}

    Matches a string from the string set {ab, cd}.

    {ab,c{de, fh}}

    Matches a string from the string set {ab, cde, cfh}.

  • FORMAT_OPTIONS

    Options to be passed to the Apache Spark data source reader for the specified format. See Format options for each file format.

  • COPY_OPTIONS

    Options to control the operation of the COPY INTO command.

    • force: boolean, default false. If set to true, idempotency is disabled and files are loaded regardless of whether they’ve been loaded before.

    • mergeSchema: boolean, default false. If set to true, the schema can be evolved according to the incoming data.

Invoke COPY INTO concurrently

COPY INTO supports concurrent invocations against the same table. As long as COPY INTO is invoked concurrently on distinct sets of input files, each invocation should eventually succeed, otherwise you get a transaction conflict. COPY INTO should not be invoked concurrently to improve performance; a single COPY INTO command with multiple files typically performs better than running concurrent COPY INTO commands with a single file each. COPY INTO can be called concurrently when:

  • Multiple data producers don’t have an easy way to coordinate and cannot make a single invocation.

  • When a very large directory can be ingested sub-directory by sub-directory. When ingesting directories with a very large number of files, Databricks recommends using Auto Loader when possible.

Access file metadata

To learn how to access metadata for file-based data sources, see File metadata column.

Format options

Generic options

The following options apply to all file formats.

Option

ignoreCorruptFiles

Type: Boolean

Whether to ignore corrupt files. If true, the Spark jobs will continue to run when encountering corrupted files and the contents that have been read will still be returned. Observable as numSkippedCorruptFiles in the operationMetrics column of the Delta Lake history. Available in Databricks Runtime 11.0 and above.

Default value: false

ignoreMissingFiles

Type: Boolean

Whether to ignore missing files. If true, the Spark jobs will continue to run when encountering missing files and the contents that have been read will still be returned. Available in Databricks Runtime 11.0 and above.

Default value: false (true for COPY INTO)

modifiedAfter

Type: Timestamp String, for example, 2021-01-01 00:00:00.000000 UTC+0

An optional timestamp to ingest files that have a modification timestamp after the provided timestamp.

Default value: None

modifiedBefore

Type: Timestamp String, for example, 2021-01-01 00:00:00.000000 UTC+0

An optional timestamp to ingest files that have a modification timestamp before the provided timestamp.

Default value: None

pathGlobFilter or fileNamePattern

Type: String

A potential glob pattern to provide for choosing files. Equivalent to PATTERN in COPY INTO. fileNamePattern can be used in read_files.

Default value: None

recursiveFileLookup

Type: Boolean

Whether to load data recursively within the base directory and skip partition inference.

Default value: false

JSON options

Option

allowBackslashEscapingAnyCharacter

Type: Boolean

Whether to allow backslashes to escape any character that succeeds it. If not enabled, only characters that are explicitly listed by the JSON specification can be escaped.

Default value: false

allowComments

Type: Boolean

Whether to allow the use of Java, C, and C++ style comments ('/', '*', and '//' varieties) within parsed content or not.

Default value: false

allowNonNumericNumbers

Type: Boolean

Whether to allow the set of not-a-number (NaN) tokens as legal floating number values.

Default value: true

allowNumericLeadingZeros

Type: Boolean

Whether to allow integral numbers to start with additional (ignorable) zeroes (for example, 000001).

Default value: false

allowSingleQuotes

Type: Boolean

Whether to allow use of single quotes (apostrophe, character '\') for quoting strings (names and String values).

Default value: true

allowUnquotedControlChars

Type: Boolean

Whether to allow JSON strings to contain unescaped control characters (ASCII characters with value less than 32, including tab and line feed characters) or not.

Default value: false

allowUnquotedFieldNames

Type: Boolean

Whether to allow use of unquoted field names (which are allowed by JavaScript, but not by the JSON specification).

Default value: false

badRecordsPath

Type: String

The path to store files for recording the information about bad JSON records.

Default value: None

columnNameOfCorruptRecord

Type: String

The column for storing records that are malformed and cannot be parsed. If the mode for parsing is set as DROPMALFORMED, this column will be empty.

Default value: _corrupt_record

dateFormat

Type: String

The format for parsing date strings.

Default value: yyyy-MM-dd

dropFieldIfAllNull

Type: Boolean

Whether to ignore columns of all null values or empty arrays and structs during schema inference.

Default value: false

encoding or charset

Type: String

The name of the encoding of the JSON files. See java.nio.charset.Charset for list of options. You cannot use UTF-16 and UTF-32 when multiline is true.

Default value: UTF-8

inferTimestamp

Type: Boolean

Whether to try and infer timestamp strings as a TimestampType. When set to true, schema inference might take noticeably longer. You must enable cloudFiles.inferColumnTypes to use with Auto Loader.

Default value: false

lineSep

Type: String

A string between two consecutive JSON records.

Default value: None, which covers \r, \r\n, and \n

locale

Type: String

A java.util.Locale identifier. Influences default date, timestamp, and decimal parsing within the JSON.

Default value: US

mode

Type: String

Parser mode around handling malformed records. One of 'PERMISSIVE', 'DROPMALFORMED', or 'FAILFAST'.

Default value: PERMISSIVE

multiLine

Type: Boolean

Whether the JSON records span multiple lines.

Default value: false

prefersDecimal

Type: Boolean

Attempts to infer strings as DecimalType instead of float or double type when possible. You must also use schema inference, either by enabling inferSchema or using cloudFiles.inferColumnTypes with Auto Loader.

Default value: false

primitivesAsString

Type: Boolean

Whether to infer primitive types like numbers and booleans as StringType.

Default value: false

readerCaseSensitive

Type: Boolean

Specifies the case sensitivity behavior when rescuedDataColumn is enabled. If true, rescue the data columns whose names differ by case from the schema; otherwise, read the data in a case-insensitive manner. Available in Databricks Runtime 13.3 and above.

Default value: true

rescuedDataColumn

Type: String

Whether to collect all data that can’t be parsed due to a data type mismatch or schema mismatch (including column casing) to a separate column. This column is included by default when using Auto Loader. For more details, refer to What is the rescued data column?.

Default value: None

timestampFormat

Type: String

The format for parsing timestamp strings.

Default value: yyyy-MM-dd'T'HH:mm:ss[.SSS][XXX]

timeZone

Type: String

The java.time.ZoneId to use when parsing timestamps and dates.

Default value: None

CSV options

Option

badRecordsPath

Type: String

The path to store files for recording the information about bad CSV records.

Default value: None

charToEscapeQuoteEscaping

Type: Char

The character used to escape the character used for escaping quotes. For example, for the following record: [ " a\\", b ]:

  • If the character to escape the '\' is undefined, the record won’t be parsed. The parser will read characters: [a],[\],["],[,],[ ],[b] and throw an error because it cannot find a closing quote.

  • If the character to escape the '\' is defined as '\', the record will be read with 2 values: [a\] and [b].

Default value: '\0'

columnNameOfCorruptRecord

Note

Supported for Auto Loader. Not supported for COPY INTO.

Type: String

The column for storing records that are malformed and cannot be parsed. If the mode for parsing is set as DROPMALFORMED, this column will be empty.

Default value: _corrupt_record

comment

Type: Char

Defines the character that represents a line comment when found in the beginning of a line of text. Use '\0' to disable comment skipping.

Default value: '\u0000'

dateFormat

Type: String

The format for parsing date strings.

Default value: yyyy-MM-dd

emptyValue

Type: String

String representation of an empty value.

Default value: ""

encoding or charset

Type: String

The name of the encoding of the CSV files. See java.nio.charset.Charset for the list of options. UTF-16 and UTF-32 cannot be used when multiline is true.

Default value: UTF-8

enforceSchema

Type: Boolean

Whether to forcibly apply the specified or inferred schema to the CSV files. If the option is enabled, headers of CSV files are ignored. This option is ignored by default when using Auto Loader to rescue data and allow schema evolution.

Default value: true

escape

Type: Char

The escape character to use when parsing the data.

Default value: '\'

header

Type: Boolean

Whether the CSV files contain a header. Auto Loader assumes that files have headers when inferring the schema.

Default value: false

ignoreLeadingWhiteSpace

Type: Boolean

Whether to ignore leading whitespaces for each parsed value.

Default value: false

ignoreTrailingWhiteSpace

Type: Boolean

Whether to ignore trailing whitespaces for each parsed value.

Default value: false

inferSchema

Type: Boolean

Whether to infer the data types of the parsed CSV records or to assume all columns are of StringType. Requires an additional pass over the data if set to true. For Auto Loader, use cloudFiles.inferColumnTypes instead.

Default value: false

lineSep

Type: String

A string between two consecutive CSV records.

Default value: None, which covers \r, \r\n, and \n

locale

Type: String

A java.util.Locale identifier. Influences default date, timestamp, and decimal parsing within the CSV.

Default value: US

maxCharsPerColumn

Type: Int

Maximum number of characters expected from a value to parse. Can be used to avoid memory errors. Defaults to -1, which means unlimited.

Default value: -1

maxColumns

Type: Int

The hard limit of how many columns a record can have.

Default value: 20480

mergeSchema

Type: Boolean

Whether to infer the schema across multiple files and to merge the schema of each file. Enabled by default for Auto Loader when inferring the schema.

Default value: false

mode

Type: String

Parser mode around handling malformed records. One of 'PERMISSIVE', 'DROPMALFORMED', and 'FAILFAST'.

Default value: PERMISSIVE

multiLine

Type: Boolean

Whether the CSV records span multiple lines.

Default value: false

nanValue

Type: String

The string representation of a non-a-number value when parsing FloatType and DoubleType columns.

Default value: "NaN"

negativeInf

Type: String

The string representation of negative infinity when parsing FloatType or DoubleType columns.

Default value: "-Inf"

nullValue

Type: String

String representation of a null value.

Default value: ""

parserCaseSensitive (deprecated)

Type: Boolean

While reading files, whether to align columns declared in the header with the schema case sensitively. This is true by default for Auto Loader. Columns that differ by case will be rescued in the rescuedDataColumn if enabled. This option has been deprecated in favor of readerCaseSensitive.

Default value: false

positiveInf

Type: String

The string representation of positive infinity when parsing FloatType or DoubleType columns.

Default value: "Inf"

preferDate

Type: Boolean

Attempts to infer strings as dates instead of timestamp when possible. You must also use schema inference, either by enabling inferSchema or using cloudFiles.inferColumnTypes with Auto Loader.

Default value: true

quote

Type: Char

The character used for escaping values where the field delimiter is part of the value.

Default value: "

readerCaseSensitive

Type: Boolean

Specifies the case sensitivity behavior when rescuedDataColumn is enabled. If true, rescue the data columns whose names differ by case from the schema; otherwise, read the data in a case-insensitive manner.

Default value: true

rescuedDataColumn

Type: String

Whether to collect all data that can’t be parsed due to: a data type mismatch, and schema mismatch (including column casing) to a separate column. This column is included by default when using Auto Loader. For more details refer to What is the rescued data column?.

Default value: None

sep or delimiter

Type: String

The separator string between columns.

Default value: ","

skipRows

Type: Int

The number of rows from the beginning of the CSV file that should be ignored (including commented and empty rows). If header is true, the header will be the first unskipped and uncommented row.

Default value: 0

timestampFormat

Type: String

The format for parsing timestamp strings.

Default value: yyyy-MM-dd'T'HH:mm:ss[.SSS][XXX]

timeZone

Type: String

The java.time.ZoneId to use when parsing timestamps and dates.

Default value: None

unescapedQuoteHandling

Type: String

The strategy for handling unescaped quotes. Allowed options:

  • STOP_AT_CLOSING_QUOTE: If unescaped quotes are found in the input, accumulate the quote character and proceed parsing the value as a quoted value, until a closing quote is found.

  • BACK_TO_DELIMITER: If unescaped quotes are found in the input, consider the value as an unquoted value. This will make the parser accumulate all characters of the current parsed value until the delimiter defined by sep is found. If no delimiter is found in the value, the parser will continue accumulating characters from the input until a delimiter or line ending is found.

  • STOP_AT_DELIMITER: If unescaped quotes are found in the input, consider the value as an unquoted value. This will make the parser accumulate all characters until the delimiter defined by sep, or a line ending is found in the input.

  • SKIP_VALUE: If unescaped quotes are found in the input, the content parsed for the given value will be skipped (until the next delimiter is found) and the value set in nullValue will be produced instead.

  • RAISE_ERROR: If unescaped quotes are found in the input, a TextParsingException will be thrown.

Default value: STOP_AT_DELIMITER

XML options

Option

Description

Scope

rowTag

The row tag of the XML files to treat as a row. In the example XML <books> <book><book>...<books>, the appropriate value is book. This is a required option.

read

samplingRatio

Defines a fraction of rows used for schema inference. XML built-in functions ignore this option. Default: 1.0.

read

excludeAttribute

Whether to exclude attributes in elements. Default: false.

read

mode

Mode for dealing with corrupt records during parsing.

PERMISSIVE: For corrupted records, puts the malformed string into a field configured by columnNameOfCorruptRecord, and sets malformed fields to null. To keep corrupt records, you can set a string type field named columnNameOfCorruptRecord in a user-defined schema. If a schema does not have the field, corrupt records are dropped during parsing. When inferring a schema, the parser implicitly adds a columnNameOfCorruptRecord field in an output schema.

DROPMALFORMED: Ignores corrupted records. This mode is unsupported for XML built-in functions.

FAILFAST: Throws an exception when the parser meets corrupted records.

read

inferSchema

If true, attempts to infer an appropriate type for each resulting DataFrame column. If false, all resulting columns are of string type. Default: true. XML built-in functions ignore this option.

read

columnNameOfCorruptRecord

Allows renaming the new field that contains a malformed string created by PERMISSIVE mode. Default: spark.sql.columnNameOfCorruptRecord.

read

attributePrefix

The prefix for attributes to differentiate attributes from elements. This will be the prefix for field names. Default is _. Can be empty for reading XML, but not for writing.

read, write

valueTag

The tag used for the character data within elements that also have attribute(s) or child element(s) elements. User can specify the valueTag field in the schema or it will be added automatically during schema inference when character data is present in elements with other elements or attributes. Default: _VALUE

read,write

encoding

For reading, decodes the XML files by the given encoding type. For writing, specifies encoding (charset) of saved XML files. XML built-in functions ignore this option. Default: UTF-8.

read, write

ignoreSurroundingSpaces

Defines whether surrounding white spaces from values being read should be skipped. Default: true. Whitespace-only character data are ignored.

read

rowValidationXSDPath

Path to an optional XSD file that is used to validate the XML for each row individually. Rows that fail to validate are treated like parse errors as above. The XSD does not otherwise affect the schema provided, or inferred.

read

ignoreNamespace

If true, namespaces’ prefixes on XML elements and attributes are ignored. Tags <abc:author> and <def:author>, for example, are treated as if both are just <author>. Namespaces cannot be ignored on the rowTag element, only its read children. XML parsing is not namespace-aware even if false. Default: false.

read

timestampFormat

Custom timestamp format string that follows the datetime pattern format. This applies to timestamp type. Default: yyyy-MM-dd'T'HH:mm:ss[.SSS][XXX].

read, write

timestampNTZFormat

Custom format string for timestamp without timezone that follows the datetime pattern format. This applies to TimestampNTZType type. Default: yyyy-MM-dd'T'HH:mm:ss[.SSS]

read, write

dateFormat

Custom date format string that follows the datetime pattern format. This applies to date type. Default: yyyy-MM-dd.

read, write

locale

Sets a locale as a language tag in IETF BCP 47 format. For instance, locale is used while parsing dates and timestamps. Default: en-US.

read

rootTag

Root tag of the XML files. For example, in <books> <book><book>...</books>, the appropriate value is books. You can include basic attributes by specifying a value like books foo="bar". Default: ROWS.

write

declaration

Content of XML declaration to write at the start of every output XML file, before the rootTag. For example, a value of foo causes <?xml foo?> to be written. Set to an empty string to suppress. Default: version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes".

write

arrayElementName

Name of XML element that encloses each element of an array-valued column when writing. Default: item.

write

nullValue

Sets the string representation of a null value. Default: string null. When this is null, the parser does not write attributes and elements for fields.

read, write

compression

Compression code to use when saving to file. This can be one of the known case-insensitive shortened names (none, bzip2, gzip,lz4, snappy', and deflate`). XML built-in functions ignore this option. Default: none.

write

validateName

If true, throws an error on XML element name validation failure. For example, SQL field names can have spaces, but XML element names cannot. Default: true.

write

readerCaseSensitive

Specifies the case sensitivity behavior when rescuedDataColumn is enabled. If true, rescue the data columns whose names differ by case from the schema; otherwise, read the data in a case-insensitive manner. Default: true.

read

rescuedDataColumn

Whether to collect all data that can’t be parsed due to a data type mismatch and schema mismatch (including column casing) to a separate column. This column is included by default when using Auto Loader. For more details, see What is the rescued data column?. Default: None.

read

PARQUET options

Option

datetimeRebaseMode

Type: String

Controls the rebasing of the DATE and TIMESTAMP values between Julian and Proleptic Gregorian calendars. Allowed values: EXCEPTION, LEGACY, and CORRECTED.

Default value: LEGACY

int96RebaseMode

Type: String

Controls the rebasing of the INT96 timestamp values between Julian and Proleptic Gregorian calendars. Allowed values: EXCEPTION, LEGACY, and CORRECTED.

Default value: LEGACY

mergeSchema

Type: Boolean

Whether to infer the schema across multiple files and to merge the schema of each file.

Default value: false

readerCaseSensitive

Type: Boolean

Specifies the case sensitivity behavior when rescuedDataColumn is enabled. If true, rescue the data columns whose names differ by case from the schema; otherwise, read the data in a case-insensitive manner.

Default value: true

rescuedDataColumn

Type: String

Whether to collect all data that can’t be parsed due to: a data type mismatch, and schema mismatch (including column casing) to a separate column. This column is included by default when using Auto Loader. For more details refer to What is the rescued data column?.

Default value: None

AVRO options

Option

avroSchema

Type: String

Optional schema provided by a user in Avro format. When reading Avro, this option can be set to an evolved schema, which is compatible but different with the actual Avro schema. The deserialization schema will be consistent with the evolved schema. For example, if you set an evolved schema containing one additional column with a default value, the read result will contain the new column too.

Default value: None

datetimeRebaseMode

Type: String

Controls the rebasing of the DATE and TIMESTAMP values between Julian and Proleptic Gregorian calendars. Allowed values: EXCEPTION, LEGACY, and CORRECTED.

Default value: LEGACY

mergeSchema

Type: Boolean

Whether to infer the schema across multiple files and to merge the schema of each file. mergeSchema for Avro does not relax data types.

Default value: false

readerCaseSensitive

Type: Boolean

Specifies the case sensitivity behavior when rescuedDataColumn is enabled. If true, rescue the data columns whose names differ by case from the schema; otherwise, read the data in a case-insensitive manner.

Default value: true

rescuedDataColumn

Type: String

Whether to collect all data that can’t be parsed due to: a data type mismatch, and schema mismatch (including column casing) to a separate column. This column is included by default when using Auto Loader. For more details refer to What is the rescued data column?.

Default value: None

BINARYFILE options

Binary files do not have any additional configuration options.

TEXT options

Option

encoding

Type: String

The name of the encoding of the TEXT files. See java.nio.charset.Charset for list of options.

Default value: UTF-8

lineSep

Type: String

A string between two consecutive TEXT records.

Default value: None, which covers \r, \r\n and \n

wholeText

Type: Boolean

Whether to read a file as a single record.

Default value: false

ORC options

Option

mergeSchema

Type: Boolean

Whether to infer the schema across multiple files and to merge the schema of each file.

Default value: false